Mindanao Hornbill

Penelopides affinis

Red List Status: LC – Least Concern (IUCN 2020)

Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines; occurs on the island of Mindanao and some smaller adjacent islands.

Description: 45 cm. Male 456-554 g; female 394-514 g. Small-sized hornbill; male has creamy white head and underparts; upperparts, vent and cheeks dark brown; tail pale with black tip; bill is prominently ridged with black base and pale blue facial skin. Female all-black except for pale tail with black tip and base, and blue facial skin. P. a. basilanicus has less black on tail base and lacks black base on bill. Juveniles of both sexes like adult male in plumage, except for smaller brown bills. 

Voice: A short squeaky call that varies in frequency and pitch

Audio from xeno-canto

Habits: Found in primary rainforest as well as secondary forest and forest edges, from the lowlands up to 900 m elevation. The food is fruits and seeds as well as some animal food such as lizards and beetles. It appears to be sedentary and territorial; it moves inside and just below the canopies of the forest; usually seen in pairs or in small groups of up to 12 individuals.