Narcondam Hornbill

Rhyticeros narcondami

Red List Status: EN – Endangered, criteria D1+2 (IUCN 2020)

Distribution: Endemic to Narcondam Island in north-east Andamans, India. 

Description: 45-50 cm. Male 700-750 g; female 600-750 g. In structure and colouration it appears much like a miniature version of Papuan Hornbill. Adult male with rufous and female with all-black head and neck, juveniles of both sexes resemble male. The only hornbill within its range. 

Voice: The call is a loud, harsh ka-ka-ka-ka followed by a cackle, often 3-4 calling from the same tree. In alarm, calls kraawk kok kok

Habits: Found in evergreen and deciduous forest; occupies relatively open, mixed forest and dense bushes from the coast inland to the island’s summit at 700 m elevation. It can be found all over the island except for the grassy slopes in the south and south-east. It is sedentary and feeds in fruiting trees, with 33 plant species identified as food, including figs, but with four non-fig species comprising 73% of foods when breeding. Such small animals as geckos, skinks, spiders, mantids, land crabs and snakes are also eaten. Feeding parties of up to 50 birds have been recorded. Adults appear to roost as pairs below 255 m a.s.l., immatures roost 3-7 per branch at higher altitudes up in less ideal roosts, but roost sites change regularly.