Northern Rufous Hornbill

Buceros hydrocorax

Red List Status: VU – Vulnerable, criteria A2cd+3cd+4cd (IUCN 2020)

Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines, this species occurs in the northern Philippines in Luzon and Marinduque.

Description: 100 cm. Male 1345-1824 g; female approx. 1600 g. Large hornbill with dark rufous head and neck; bill red with black base extending into face. Sexes similarly coloured, with black underparts, brown back and wings, all-white tail. Female is smaller than male, casque is smaller as well, orbital skin yellow, iris red, although details uncertain. Juvenile is mainly creamy, with grey-brown wings, a black band across the lateral tail feathers, and a smaller casqueless black bill. 

Voice: The call is a clear resonant repeated honk, the female’s call at a higher pitch. 

Audio from xeno-canto

Habits: Found in large expanses of primary rainforest; extends into mature secondary forest, from the lowlands into the mountains at 2,100 m elevation. It feeds mainly on fruits and seeds, including figs. Also takes animal food, insects and centipedes have been recorded. Usually forages in the canopy of large trees, also occasionally lower and has been reported dropping to the ground. It is believed to be largely sedentary and less mobile than its congeners, Great Hornbill and Rhinoceros Hornbill, and it has shorter narrower wings and shorter red-brown legs.