Sumba Hornbill

Rhyticeros everetti

Red List Status: VU – Vulnerable, criteria A2cd+3cd+4cd;B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v);C1+2a(ii) (IUCN 2020)

Distribution: Endemic to Indonesia; occurs only on the island of Sumba in East Nusa Tenggara province. 

Description: 55 cm. Appears like a small version of Papuan Hornbill, but the only ‘wreathed’ hornbill with a black tail; base of bill reddish in both male and female; the only hornbill within its range. Juveniles of both sexes resemble adult male in plumage, but casqueless bill smaller. 

Voice: The call audible up to 500 m is some hard, repeated clucking notes kokkok-kok and a two-note contact call ermerr

Audio from xeno-canto


Habits: Found in those patches of primary rainforest that are left on Sumba; extends into nearby secondary forest and cultivation with fruiting trees to feed on. From the coast inland to 950 m elevation and prefers undisturbed forest. It feeds on fruits, especially of the families Meliaceae, Burseraceae, Gnetaceae, Lauraceae and Myristicaceae, free-standing fig, Ficus variegata, and presumably also animal food, although this has not been recorded. It is usually seen in fruiting trees, especially figs, moving in pairs, although groups of up to 15 birds may gather in one tree. It flies across the forest and open country to get from roosting site to fruiting trees; up to 70 individuals may gather at roosts.