Visayan Hornbill

Penelopides panini

Red List Status: EN – Endangered, criteria A2cd+4cd;C2a(i) (IUCN 2020)

Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines; occurs on the Visayan group of islands. 

Description: 45 cm. Female 370 g. Small hornbill; male is yellowish-white with pale rufous belly, vent and proximal tail feathers; upperparts, tip of tail and cheeks black; bill black and prominently ridged with yellow, and facial skin creamy blue. Female all-black except for creamy tail and blue facial skin, the chin patch is able to rapidly pale or darken; juveniles like respective adults in plumage, except for smaller more reddish smooth bills. Mature by 2-3 years old. 

Voice: Can often be located and identified by its voice; the call is a noisy and rapid teerik-tik-tik-tik; in flight also a quick and agitated aunk-aunk-aunk

Audio from xeno-canto

Habits: Occurs in primary rainforest, mainly in the lowlands to 1,100 m elevation, deforestation may have pushed it higher to 1,500 m. Extends into secondary forest and isolated fruiting trees nearby to feed. The food is mainly fruits (approximately 86%), particularly lipid-rich fruits, including Myristica philipinensis and M. glomerata (Myristicaceae), and Chisocheton cumingiana (Meliaceae) with some invertebrate prey as well. It appears sedentary and territorial; feeds inside or below the forest canopy and along the forest edge.